The Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and also appeared in South America.
Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands, warfare between the groups, and rising tensions. This resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears.
As American expansion reached into the West, settler and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains, and other Western tribes. Contemporary Native Americans have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands with sovereignty and treaty rights.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe.
Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were extremely different.
Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations, although estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. vary significantly, from 12.5 million to one hundred million. or forced) became a consistent policy through American administrations.