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Furthermore, all protons are exactly the same, all neutrons are exactly the same, and all electrons are exactly the same.

Sideways periodic chart with electron shell numbers. Here is an outrageous thought: All the matter around you is made of atoms, and all atoms are made of only three types of subatomic particle, protons, electrons, and neutrons.

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These are usually on the very large or very rare or very radioactive elements.

That is not really an integer atomic weight, but the atomic weight has been estimated to the nearest integer.

The integer that you find in each box of the Periodic Chart is the atomic number.

Protons and neutrons have almost exactly the same mass.Notice that there is one and only one integer from 1 - 110 or so in each element box, so we have found all the elements. Carbon 14 is radioactive because, as other atoms with the wrong percentage of neutrons to protons, it is unstable. The proper ratio of protons to neutrons is about one to one for small elements and about one proton to one and a half neutrons for the larger elements.Each element fits neatly into its niche in the Periodic Table. Types of an element in which every atom has the same number of protons and the same number of neutrons are called isotopes. Any carbon 14 that was made at the time the earth was formed is now almost all gone.Another number that you can often find in the box with the symbol of the element is usually not an integer. Carbon 14 is continuously made from high energy electromagnetic radiation hitting nitrogen atoms in the ozone layer of the earth.It is oversimplifying only a little to say that this number is the number of protons plus the average number of neutrons in that element. The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an element can be different, though. Carbon 12 has six protons (naturally, otherwise it wouldn't be carbon) and six neutrons. This carbon 14 when taken into plants as CO will also be taken into animals.There would be the same number of hydrogen atoms as chlorine atoms.

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