In this way, various branches of the family were excluded from the succession.
The countries included the Scandinavian kingdoms, reflecting the dynasty's sense of origin, its neighbours Byzantium, Hungary and Poland, and countries further afield such as France and several of the Germanic states.
The principalities of Chernigov, Galich (Galicia), Novgorod, Pereyaslavl, Polotsk, Riazan, Smolensk, Suzdal, Turov and Volynia thus developed separately.
Appointments to rule these principalities appear to have followed no particular pattern.
However, a further problem arose with the fragmentation of this patrimony into even smaller territories to provide property for junior male members of the family.
This fragmentation increased with the expansion of the different families.
Archaeological evidence corroborates Scandinavian presence at Gorodishche, Timervo and other Upper Volga sites in the late 9th century.