Her Baja California ejido pictured in background, a rare old Kumeyaay polychrome olla clay artifact to right. Perhaps no ancient artifact weathers the passage of time more convincingly than exposed granite pictured above is a large yoni sculpture carved in granite rock, and deep impressions drilled in a granite boulder called motars, morteres, metates, grinding holes.
The earliest documented inhabitants in what is now San Diego County are known as the San Dieguito Paleo-Indians, dating back to about 10,000 B. Different groups later evolved as the environment and culture diversified. Clear and convincing historical records: Most everywhere we find granite boulders in Southern California, we can observe these types of man-made holes, dimples or impressions in the rocks timely reminders of California's original peoples.
The great CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH of 1848-1855 brought a massive flood of some 300,000 gold prospectors and immigrants pouring into California during this seven-year period effectively tripling California's population in seven years.
The GOLD RUSH changed the course California's history by bringing the full weight of the invaders' superior weaponry, their foreign diseases, and their greed for gold and land bearing down on the backward, ill-prepared aboriginal population of California.
The Portola expedition and the efforts of Father Junipero Serra were to establish a chain of Spanish missions and military forts (bases) on the West Coast and build good relations with the local indigenous tribes in an old-world effort to gain their cooperation in finding the fabled cities of gold so their untold wealth could be plundered for Spain and personal gain.
In the 1955 movie "Seven Cities of Gold," by Luis Carvacho a California historical drama about Portola's 1769 land exploration into the Kumeyaay tribal Indian village of Kosa'aay (present day Old Town San Diego)In the 1984 video game "Seven Cities of Gold," the player takes the role of a late-15th century explorer for Spain, sets sail for the New World in order to explore the map and interact with the natives to win gold and please the Spanish court.
MISSION SAN DIEGO DE ALCALA The Mission San Diego de Alcalá pictured in 2008.BY 1822 the Kumeyaay had lost control of all their prime COASTAL TRIBAL LANDS (map) to the Spanish; the Spanish had been defeated by the Mexicans in the Mexican War of Independence (18101821); and San Diego had officially come under Mexican rule.KUMEYAAY ATTACKS 1836-1842 (map) on the now Mexican San Diego territory were to put down the abusive Mexican domination in the greater San Diego area and reclaim ancient Kumeyaay coastal lands and water rights the Kumeyaay's birthright to their aboriginal tribal homelands.However, I have certain editorial responsibility to present some known historical information and facts about Native American Indian history in San Diego County the ancestral tribal homelands of the Kumeyaay people.SO-CALLED MODERN EXPERTS have detailed Kumeyaay history in numerous books and articles, so my essay reflects a general overview, a timeline of California tribal history in San Diego County with LINKS to Kumeyaay historical experts and how to identify and research San Diego County tribes on the Internet including Pretty 18-year-old Citlalli Salazar, Kumiai models an antique basket hat (probably desert Cahuilla).With little to no thought given to hardship of survival, the Kumeyaay were able to turn their thoughts to ways to improve their life. Traditional Kumeyaay food sources such as acorns and pine seeds, for example, were placed in these holes, then smashed and ground into meal using a mano stone tool.